Yesterday I gave a talk to the Nottingham Trent University Maths Society, ‘A brief history of mathematics: 5,000 years from Egypt to Nottingham Trent’. I had a slide in this where I said something about what the Greek style of proof means for mathematics. It has helped me put my finger on something of why mathematics isn’t like science, and I thought I would share it here so I can look it up when I’ve forgotten again.

## You're reading: Posts Tagged: science

### Log-log! Who’s there? Not a power law!

This is a story about a particularly awful bit of science reporting. It’s taken me a while to sort out what’s going on. First I thought it was bad maths, then I thought it was bad science, and now I think it might be bad journalism. But it might be none, all, some, or a superset of those. I didn’t really want to write this post because crowing about other people’s apparent failures isn’t great, but we took a team decision to cover it because of entertainment reasons. ((Unlike the BBC, we are not funded in a unique way, so we have no public service remit. I think that’s right.)) I’m going to make an attempt to tell you what I’ve found, a little bit of what I think, and then we can rejoin Team Positive Mental Attitude when it’s all over.

### Podcasting update

I have a job. This is not the podcasting update, but it does affect it! If you have listened to the latest Math/Maths Podcast you will know that I will be lecturing mathematics from January while trying to finish my PhD thesis, and that we will be putting that podcast on hiatus while I do so. This means no more talking to Samuel Hansen for at least six months.

There is something you can do to fill this mathematical podcasting gap, however. Samuel is trying to raise money through a Kickstarter to allow him upgrade his equipment and improve the quality, to pay for the travel to conduct face-to-face interviews and to make this his full-time job so he can concentrate on a regular release schedule, for his work in maths (math) and science communication over at ACMEScience.com.

At Kickstarter, Samuel says:

ACMEScience.com has spent the last four years trying to do something that very few others have ever attempted, create entertaining, insightful, and interesting content about mathematics and science. Started by Samuel Hansen in the beginning of 2009, ACMEScience has produced a pop-culture joke filled mathematical panel show, Combinations and Permutations, a show that interviews everyone from the CEO of a stats driven dating site to a stand up mathematician to Neil deGrasse Tyson, Strongly Connected Components, a show that tells the stories of the fights that behind DNA, dinosaurs, and the shape of the universe, Science Sparring Society, a video interview show that has featured predatory bacteria and crowdsourced questions, ACMEScience News Now, and a series of hour long journeys into the world of competitive AI checkers computers and stories of the most interesting 20th C mathematician and much more, Relatively Prime.

You may remember that Samuel raised money through a Kickstarter before, for the extremely well-received documentary series Relatively Prime. So you might judge this as evidence that he is capable of delivering this project. However, you may also remember that if he doesn’t raise the whole amount he needs then he gets nothing.

There are various pledge levels, with various rewards. Some of these are aimed at the individual who wants to own a piece of the project. Others are aimed at people who want to sponsor/advertise via the shows and get their message out there. Looking at the level of pledges so far, Samuel could really do with a few companies or individuals who want to get a message out to a mathematics or science audience coming forward and pledging some money. Relatively Prime was very well listened to, and you could get your message to a large, focused, engaged set of listeners.

There is not long to go (only four days at time of writing) and it doesn’t look good. So please pitch in and also tell everyone you know via your own blog/podcast/social networks/etc. so that others will support his effort.

Here is the video in which Samuel makes his case. It’s six minutes so at least watch that! The Kickstarter page is ACMEScience.com by Samuel Hansen. Donating is easy through Amazon payments.

### New journals attempting to address publication bias

There is an article in the Wall Street Journal about journals that publish negative results. There is a problem with scientific research that positive results are more likely to get published than negative ones. This can lead to spurious statistical results and researchers wasting their time because a procedure or technique might appear more successful than it really is.

### Favourite popular mathematics books

I consider popular mathematics writing to be a good thing. I even tried a little myself and would be keen to try more. I am not, however, an expert in this genre. I certainly read popular maths and science books as a teenager and I remember fondly, along with a couple of physics books and biographies, the mathematical stories told in James Gleick’s *Chaos*, Ivars Peterson’s *The Mathematical Tourist* and Simon Singh’s *Fermat’s Last Theorem*. I’m not sure this is sufficient qualification to have a strong critical opinion. I have a copy of Alex Bellos’ *Alex’s Adventures in Numberland* that I was bought last birthday and, although it is on the top of my pile and I feel sure I will enjoy this when I get chance (perhaps someday I’ll spend a holiday not worrying about my PhD), I haven’t quite got around to reading it.

This week Guardian Books offered Ian Stewart’s top 10 popular mathematics books in which, the description promises, “the much-acclaimed author chooses the best guides to ‘the Cinderella science’ for general readers”. Why Cinderella you ask? Stewart means this in the sense at the start of the story, “undervalued, underestimated, and misunderstood”, and perhaps intends popular mathematics to take mathematics to the ball, saying:

Popular mathematics provides an entry route for non-specialists. It allows them to appreciate where mathematics came from, who created it, what it’s good for, and where it’s going, without getting tangled up in the technicalities. It’s like listening to music instead of composing it.

It will be no surprise, after the opening paragraph, if I admit that I neither own nor have I read any of Stewart’s choices. I’ve heard of several of them but by no means all. I was surprised by the inclusion of Newton’s *Principia*. In the back of my mind I have collected the ‘fact’ (citation needed) that Newton is a difficult read and I felt this made it a strange choice against the aim to bring “the best guides to ‘the Cinderella science’ for general readers” (though I’m aware the description will have been added later, possibly without Stewart’s knowledge). Stewart justifies its inclusion as “a great classic” saying that although this is “not popularisation in the strict sense”, this “slips in because it communicated to the world one of the very greatest ideas of all time: Nature has laws, and they can be expressed in the language of mathematics” and claims “no mathematical book has had more impact”.

On Twitter, Tony Mann confirmed my half-remembered notion that “Principia is hard, very hard. Even in English“. As to the claim of impact, Tony suggested Stewart should have chosen the Latin version as having more impact. Thony Christie agreed this is “a very hard book to read and comprehend“, though Christian Perfect suggested that he found the scans of Newton’s college notebooks which were recently made available online to be “quite readable“.

Reading what Stewart wrote about Newton’s Principia and its impact in the history of science, I wonder if the book was chosen more to tell the story in the article than out of a serious suggestion that it might be read. Christian Perfect makes this point more generally about the list over on my Google+ page:

I think he’s chosen 10 books about his favourite mathematical ideas rather than 10 books which most effectively communicate mathematical ideas to a member of the “populace”.

To include a classic, I wondered if something like Euler’s Elements of Algebra, which I had heard travels fairly well to a modern reader, might be a more appropriate choice. On my G+ page, Sarah Kavassalis suggested “one of Poincaré’s popular books instead though, for readability”.

I asked people for their thoughts on the list and what else they would include. It’s quite noticeable that several respondents report not having read many on the list (the same is true of the comments under the original article). Alex Bellos, on G+ expands on this:

I guess there are two types of “popular” – 1) something accessible for people who know no maths and 2) something fun for the math literate. I’d say Ian’s list is very much the latter. If a lay friend asked me for a maths book suggestion they might understand and enjoy, I would only recommend the first two on his list [Robert Kanigel’s

The Man Who Knew Infinityand Douglas Hofstadter’sGödel, Escher, Bach].

Given the popular medium and Stewart’s introduction to the article, in which he talks about popular mathematics as “an entry route for non-specialists”, it is strange to see the list being regarded in this way. There’s nothing wrong with a list of fun books for maths folks, with something to surprise us rather than just the obvious choices, but if that was what was intended then this probably should have said so. I worry about someone using this list to build a ‘must-read’ list and perhaps being put off popular mathematics as a result.

I also asked for your suggestions and these follow. It may not be fair but I have listed these in the order they were suggested. I’ve included descriptions, except where stated these are those given on Amazon UK.

Thank you to everyone who played along with this little game. We’ve got more than ten and I can’t vouch for which would suit “people who know no maths” or “the math literate”, but I’ve enjoyed looking through the suggestions. Further suggestions are, of course, welcome via the comments.

**Alex Bellos’ Alex’s Adventures in Numberland (US title: Here’s Looking at Euclid)**

Suggested by Vincent Knight and Singing Hedgehog on G+.

In this richly entertaining and accessible book, Alex Bellos explodes the myth that maths is best left to the geeks. Covering subjects from adding to algebra, from set theory to statistics, and from logarithms to logical paradoxes, he explains how mathematical ideas underpin just about everything in our lives.

**Edwin Abbott’s Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions**

Suggested by Sarah Kavassalis (“very different approach to popular mathematics”) and Singing Hedgehog (“strange since Ian Stewart wrote the follow up Flatterland!”) on G+.

How would a creature limited to two dimensions be able to grasp the possibility of a third? Edwin A. Abbott’s droll and delightful ‘romance of many dimensions’ explores this conundrum in the experiences of his protagonist, A Square, whose linear world is invaded by an emissary Sphere bringing the gospel of the third dimension on the eve of the new millennium. Part geometry lesson, part social satire, this classic work of science fiction brilliantly succeeds in enlarging all readers’ imaginations beyond the limits of our ‘respective dimensional prejudices’.

**Ian Stewart’s Cabinet of Mathematical Curiosities and Hoard of Mathematical Treasures**

Singing Hedgehog, on G+, recognises that Stewart can’t choose his own books for the list but would add

*Cabinet*and

*Hoard*, which he calls “fabulous repositories of interesting stuff”.

A book of mathematical oddities: games, puzzles, facts, numbers and delightful mathematical nibbles for the curious and adventurous mind.

A new trove of entrancing numbers and delightful mathematical nibbles for adventurous mind.

**Clifford Pickover’s The Math Book**

Suggested by Singing Hedgehog on G+.

Maths infinite mysteries and beauty unfold in this fascinating book. Beginning millions of years ago with ancient ‘ant odometers’ and moving through time to our modern-day quest for new dimensions, it covers 250 milestones in mathematical history.

**Barry Mazur’s Imagining Numbers: (Particularly the Square Root of Minus Fifteen)**

Suggested by Singing Hedgehog on G+.

The book shows how the art of mathematical imagining is not as mysterious as it seems. Drawing on a variety of artistic resources the author reveals how anyone can begin to visualize the enigmatic ‘imaginary numbers’ that first baffled mathematicians in the 16th century.

**Florian Cajori’s A History of Mathematical Notations**

Suggested by Singing Hedgehog on G+, who says this “covers the history of mathematics through the methods of writing it”.

Described even today as “unsurpassed,” this history of mathematical notation stretching back to the Babylonians and Egyptians is one of the most comprehensive written. In two impressive volumes–first published in 1928-9–distinguished mathematician Florian Cajori shows the origin, evolution, and dissemination of each symbol and the competition it faced in its rise to popularity or fall into obscurity.

**Richard Elwes’ Maths 1001: Absolutely Everything That Matters in Mathematics**

Susan Turnbull insists this mustn’t be forgotten over on G+.

Maths 1001 provides clear and concise explanations of the most fascinating and fundamental mathematical concepts. Distilled into 1001 bite-sized mini-essays arranged thematically, this unique reference book moves steadily from the basics through to the most advanced of ideas, making it the ideal guide for novices and mathematics enthusiasts.

**William Poundstone’s The Recursive Universe: Cosmic Complexity and the Limits of Scientific Knowledge**

Suggested by John Read on G+.

In The Recursive Universe, William Poundstone uses Conway’s Life as a vehicle to explore complexity theory and modern physics. Poundstone demonstrates how simple rules can produce complex results when applied recursively and suspects our own universe was created in a similar manner. (Description source)

**Ivan Moscovich’s Super-games**

Suggested by John Read on G+, but of which I cannot find a description.

**Benoit Mandelbrot’s The Fractal Geometry of Nature**

Suggested by John Read on G+.

“…a blend of erudition (fascinating and sometimes obscure historical minutiae abound), popularization (mathematical rigor is relegated to appendices) and exposition (the reader need have little knowledge of the fields involved) …and the illustrations include many superb examples of computer graphics that are works of art in their own right.” Nature

**John Allen Paulos’ Innumeracy: Mathematical Illiteracy and Its Consequences**

Suggested by John Read on G+.

Why do even well-educated people often understand so little about maths – or take a perverse pride in not being a ‘numbers person’?

In his now-classic bookInnumeracy, John Allen Paulos answers questions such as: Why is following the stock market exactly like flipping a coin? How big is a trillion? How fast does human hair grow in mph? Can you calculate the chances that a party includes two people who have the same birthday? Paulos shows us that by arming yourself with some simple maths, you don’t have to let numbers get the better of you.

**Martin Gardner’s Mathematical Puzzles and Diversions**

Suggested by John Read on G+ who says this is “the first I bought and the one I go back to most” but I can’t find a cover blurb description of this.

**Marcus Du Sautoy’s The Music of the Primes: Why an unsolved problem in mathematics matters**

Suggested by John Read on G+.

In this breathtaking book, mathematician Marcus du Sautoy tells the story of the eccentric and brilliant men who have struggled to solve one of the biggest mysteries in science. It is a story of strange journeys, last-minute escapes from death and the unquenchable thirst for knowledge. Above all, it is a moving and awe-inspiring evocation of the mathematician’s world and the beauties and mysteries it contains.

**Ian Stewart’s Game Set and Math: Enigmas and Conundrums**

John Read on G+ says “I’d also pick an Ian Stewart – probably Game, Set and Math”. Again, I can’t find a description.

**William Cook’s In Pursuit of the Traveling Salesman: Mathematics at the Limits of Computation**

Mitch Keller on Twitter notes that only one book on Stewart’s list focuses on a specific problem and suggests this as another.

What is the shortest possible route for a traveling salesman seeking to visit each city on a list exactly once and return to his city of origin? It sounds simple enough, yet the traveling salesman problem is one of the most intensely studied puzzles in applied mathematics–and it has defied solution to this day. In this book, William Cook takes readers on a mathematical excursion, picking up the salesman’s trail in the 1800s when Irish mathematician W. R. Hamilton first defined the problem, and venturing to the furthest limits of today’s state-of-the-art attempts to solve it.

On G+ Alex Bellos recommended the following three for an accessible list for “people who know no maths”, saying “the challenge when writing a maths book is to find a strong narrative – and these three books do it better than any others”.

**Simon Singh’s Fermat’s Last Theorem: The story of a riddle that confounded the world’s greatest minds for 358 years**

Recommended by Alex Bellos on G+.

The extraordinary story of the solving of a puzzle that has confounded mathematicians since the 17th century… A remarkable story of human endeavour and intellectual brilliance over three centuries, Fermat’s Last Theorem will fascinate both specialist and general readers.

**Apostolos Doxiadis and Christos Papadimitriou’s Logicomix: An Epic Search for Truth**

Recommended by Alex Bellos on G+.

This brilliantly illustrated tale of reason, insanity, love and truth recounts the story of Bertrand Russell’s life… An insightful and complexly layered narrative, Logicomix reveals both Russell’s inner struggle and the quest for the foundations of logic. Narration by an older, wiser Russell, as well as asides from the author himself, make sense of the story’s heady and powerful ideas. At its heart, Logicomix is a story about the conflict between pure reason and the persistent flaws of reality, a narrative populated by great and august thinkers, young lovers, ghosts and insanity.

**Apostolos Doxiadis’ Uncle Petros and Goldbach’s Conjecture**

Recommended by Alex Bellos on G+.

Uncle Petros and Goldbach’s Conjecture is an inspiring novel of intellectual adventure, proud genius, the exhilaration of pure mathematics – and the rivalry and antagonism which torment those who pursue impossible goals.

For a list of “something fun for the math literate”, Alex recommended the following three.

**Petr Beckmann’s A History of Pi**

Recommended by Alex Bellos on G+.

The history of pi, says the author, though a small part of the history of mathematics, is nevertheless a mirror of the history of man. Petr Beckmann holds up this mirror, giving the background of the times when pi made progress — and also when it did not, because science was being stifled by militarism or religious fanaticism.

**Tobias Dantzig’s Number: The Language of Numbers**

Recommended by Alex Bellos on G+.

A new edition of the classic introduction to mathematics, first published in 1930 and revised in the 1950s, explains the history and tenets of mathematics, including the relationship of mathematics to the other sciences and profiles of the luminaries whose research expanded the human concept of number.

**Paul Hoffman’s The Man Who Loved Only Numbers: The Story of Paul Erdös and the Search for Mathematical Truth**

Recommended by Alex Bellos on G+.

The biography of a mathematical genius. Paul Erdos was the most prolific pure mathematician in history and, arguably, the strangest too.

For this group, Alex also recommends “the complete works of Martin Gardner”.

**James Gleick’s Chaos and The Information**

Recommended by Alex Bellos on G+. Alex says these are between the two lists as they are “both utterly brilliant but might lose the casual reader in parts”.

Chaos: This book brings together different work in the new field of physics called the chaos theory, an extension of classical mechanics, in which simple and complex causes are seen to interact. Mathematics may only be able to solve simple linear equations which experiment has pushed nature into obeying in a limited way, but now that computers can map the whole plane of solutions of non-linear equations a new vision of nature is revealed. The implications are staggeringly universal in all areas of scientific work and philosophical thought.

The Information: We live in the information age. But every era of history has had its own information revolution: the invention of writing, the composition of dictionaries, the creation of the charts that made navigation possible, the discovery of the electronic signal, the cracking of the genetic code.

In The Information James Gleick tells the story of how human beings use, transmit and keep what they know. From African talking drums to Wikipedia, from Morse code to the ‘bit’, it is a fascinating account of the modern age’s defining idea and a brilliant exploration of how information has revolutionised our lives.